With a total number of 55 ethnic groups and a population of 4,908,000, Sichuan is a province with diverse ethnic groups, among which the Yi, Tibetan, Qiang, Hui, Mongolian, Susu, Man, and Naxi take the main position. These ethnic groups have their own unique culture and customs, which contribute greatly to the diversity of Sichuan and have become major tourism attraction for a Sichuan tour. Sichuan is the only home of the Qiang ethnic group, the largest agglomeration of Yi ethnic group and the second largest Tibetan area in the country. The minority mainly live in Liangshan Yi autonomous prefecture, Ganzi Tibetan autonomous prefecture, Aba Tibetan and Qiang autonomous prefecture, etc. It is known as "China's Second Tibetan Region", "China's Only Qiang Zone" and "China's First Yi communities".
Sichuan dialect is popular in Sichuan province, Chongqing (ba shu region) and neighboring provinces near the main Chinese language, about 120 million users. Because of the high interconnection of Sichuan dialect, there is no obstacle in communication between all areas. Among the 14 indigenous ethnic minorities, all used their native language except for Hui nationality. Most Tibetans use Tibetan and Rgyalrong language, about 40% of which could also speak Chinese. 95% of the Yi people use Yi language, about 60% of which could speak Chinese. 70% of the Qiang people use Qiang language, about 70% of which could speak Chinese. Sichuan is a Hakka province in west China since the “HuGuang fill in sichuan" immigration movement at the beginning of the Qing dynasty. In all of sichuan, about 700,000 people could speak Hakka.
The languages of all ethnic groups in sichuan have a long history, and Tibetische and Yi are the oldest word. Now Tibetans use traditional Tibetan word; the Yi people use the standardized Yi word which has been modified by the State Council for the improvement of traditional Yi language; the Qiang people have no traditional words, and now use alphabetic writing formulated in 1950s and completed in 1980s. Miao people used the alphabetic writing formulated in 1950s.
Traditional beliefs of Yi people are ancestor worship, nature, and totem worship. All the lacquer panting, folk literature music, dance, painting and sculpture are full of the national characteristics. Among which the colorful lacquer is the utensils with the strongest style of Yi nationality and is also the treasure of Yi culture and art.
Tibetan is a nationality with devout religious believes and high grade culture. Their classic, architecture, drama, painting, arts and crafts art are of very high standard. Qiang people believe in ancestor worship and nature worship. They have unique style architectural art which is embodied by the block house, housing and bridge and exquisite talk arts and crafts represented by Qiang embroidery which has a strong artistic expression.