Pipelines in China
As of 2006, China had 22,664 km (14,083 mi) of gas pipelines, 15,256 km (9,480 mi) of oil pipelines, and 6,106 km (3,794 mi) for refined products. Due to the growing dependence on oil and gas, the total length of oil and gas pipelines in China has risen to 70,000 km (43,496 mi) from 22,000 km (13,670 mi) in 1997, stretching from oil and gas fields in western and northeastern regions to densely populated coastal areas in the east. By the end of 2010, the network could exceed 90,000 km (55,923 mi). China’s pipelines carried 219.9 million tons of petroleum and natural gas in 2003. As a major oil and gas consumer, China is searching for more external supplies. Construction of a 4,200-km-long pipeline from Xinjiang to Shanghai (West–East Gas Pipeline) was completed in 2004. The government hopes that the use of natural gas will assist to reduce the use of coal which is responsible for much air pollution.
Natural Gas pipelines in China
Altai Gas Pipeline
The Altai gas pipeline is a proposed natural gas pipeline to export natural gas from Russia’s Western Siberia to North-Western China. The 2,800 kilometres (1,700 mi) long pipeline would start from the Purpeyskaya compressor station of the existing Urengoy–Surgut–Chelyabinsk pipeline. It would carry natural gas from Nadym and Urengoy fields in Western Siberia. In China, the pipeline would be terminated in the Xinjiang region, where it will be linked to the West–East Gas Pipeline.
Central Asia–China Gas Pipeline
Known also as Turkmenistan–China gas pipeline, it is a natural gas pipeline system from Central Asia to Xinjiang in the People’s Republic of China. By connecting Turkmenistan to China’s domestic grid, this pipeline makes it possible to transport gas some 7000 km from Turkmenistan to Shanghai. It became operational on 15 June 2014, and is expected to reach the designed throughput of 25 billion cubic metres per annum (880×109 cu ft/a) in December 2015.
The first pipeline starts from the gas processing plant in Changqing gas field, in Shaanxi province, and terminates in the Yamenkou terminal in Shijingshan district, Beijing. It supplies natural gas to Shanxi, Hebei, Beijing and Tianjin. The Parallel Shaan-Jing Pipeline is supplied from the Sulige Gas Field and it starts from the gas processing plant Yulin, Shaanxi. The pipeline runs via Shijiazhuang to Beijing.
Sichuan–Shanghai Gas Pipeline
Sichuan–Shanghai gas pipeline is a 1,702 kilometres (1,058 mi) long natural gas pipeline in China. The pipeline runs from Pugang gas field in Dazhou, Sichuan Province, to Qingpu District of Shanghai. An 842 kilometres (523 mi) long branch line connects Yichang in Hubei with Puyang in Henan Province.
Sino-Myanmar pipelines refers to the oil and natural gas pipelines linking Myanmar‘s deep-water port of Kyaukphyu (Sittwe) in the Bay of Bengal with Kunming in Yunnan province of China. The natural gas pipeline will extend further from Kunming to Guizhou and Guangxi in China, running a total of 2,806 kilometres (1,700 mi).
West–East Gas Pipeline
The West–East Gas Pipelineis a set of natural gas pipelines which run from the western part of China to the east. The 4,000 kilometres (2,500 mi) long pipeline runs from Lunnan in Xinjiang to Shanghai. The pipeline passes through 66 cities in the 10 provinces in China. Natural gas transported by the pipeline is used for electricity production in the Yangtze River Delta area.
The Zhongxian–Wuhan Pipeline is a natural gas pipeline, which connects Sichuan and Chongqing gas fields with consumers in Hubei and Hunan provinces. The pipeline runs from Zhong County in Chongqing to Wuhan. The trunk pipeline has three branch pipelines from Jingzhou to Xiangfan, from Qianjiang to Xiangtan and from Wuhan to Huangshi and Huaiyang connecting it with the West–East Gas Pipeline.
Oil Pipelines in China
Kazakhstan–China Oil Pipeline
The Kazakhstan–China oil pipeline is China’s first direct oil import pipeline allowing oil import from Central Asia. It runs from Kazakhstan’s Caspian shore to Xinjiang in China. The pipeline is owned by the China National Petroleum Corporation (CNPC) and the Kazakh oil company KazMunayGas. The 2,228 kilometres (1,384 mi) long pipeline runs from Atyrau in Kazakhstan to Alashankou in China’s Xinjiang.
The Lanzhou–Chengdu Pipeline is a crude oil pipeline in China. Connected to the Ürümqi–Lanzhou pipeline, it transports crude oil produced in Xinjiang as also imported through the Kazakhstan–China oil pipeline to south-western China. Among other customers it supplies the Pengzhou refinery. The 880-kilometre (547 mi) pipeline starts at the Lanzhou terminal and finish at the Pengzhou terminal. It runs through Gansu, Shaanxi and Sichuan provinces.
The 1,250-kilometre (777 mi) pipeline starts at the Lanzhou terminal and finish at the Chongqing terminal. It runs through Gansu, Shaanxi and Sichuan provinces. The pipeline has capacity over 6 million tonnes of oil products per year. After the 2008 Sichuan earthquake the pipeline was temporarily closed due to risk of flooding as the pipeline is located 60 kilometres (37 mi) downstream from Tangjiashan Lake.
The Lanzhou–Zhengzhou–Changsha product oil pipeline is a pipeline carrying diesel and other oil products from the northwest to the central regions of China. The 2,070-kilometre (1,290 mi) pipeline starts in Lanzhou in Gansu, and runs through Zhengzhou in Henan to Changsha in Hunan. In Zhengzhou, it is linked with Jinzhou–Zhengzhou product pipeline running from Jinzhou in Liaoning to Zhengzhou.
The oil and natural gas pipelines run in parallel and start near Kyaukphyu on Made island port on the Bay of Bengal in Myanmar, run under the sea for 5.3 KM to mainland and then run through Mandalay, Pyin Oo Lwin, and Muse in Myanmar before entering China at the border city of Ruili in Yunnan province. The oil pipeline, which eventually terminates in Kunming, capital of Yunnan province, is 771 kilometres (479 mi) long.